Jesus on death

We continue our journey into every word spoken by Jesus in the Gospels to help us all KNOW JESUS MORE NOW.

We’re in the midst of a series entitled JESUS ON EVERYTHING, where we’re looking at what Jesus said on a wide variety of subjects with a minimum of commentary from me.

Today’s topic: JESUS ON DEATH.

Listen to Jesus. It’s truly a matter of life and death:

Just as Moses lifted up the snake in the desert, so the Son of Man must be lifted up, that everyone who believes in him may have eternal life. For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life. (John 3:14-16)

Whoever hears my word and believes him who sent me has eternal life and will not be judged but has crossed over from death to life. (John 5:24)

The one who believes has eternal life. I am the bread of life. Your forefathers ate the manna in the desert, yet they died. But here is the bread that comes down from heaven, which a many may eat and not die. I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. This bread is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world. (John 6:47-51)

Whoever obeys my word will never see death. (John 8:51)

I am the resurrection and the life. The one who believes in me will live, even though they die; and whoever lives by believing in me will never die. Do you believe this? (John 11:25-26)

Enter through the narrow gate. For wide is the gate and broad is the road that leads to destruction, and many enter through it. But small is the gate and narrow the road that leads to life, and only a few find it. (Matthew 7:13-14)

Do not be afraid of those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. Rather, be afraid of the One who can destroy both soul and body in hell. (Matthew 10:28)

The ground of a certain rich man produced a good crop. He thought to himself, “What shall I do? I have no place to store my crops.” Then he said, “This is what I’ll do. I will tear down my barns and build bigger ones, and there I will store all my grain and my goods. And I’ll say to myself, ‘You have plenty of good things laid up for many years. Take life easy; eat, drink and be merry.’” But God said to him, “You fool! This very night your life will be demanded from you. Then who will get what you have prepared for yourself?” This is how it will be with anyone who stores up things for himself but is not rich toward God. (Luke 12:16-21)

(Image credit: Shutterstock.com)

getupwithgod.com
What does the most infamous criminal proceeding in history–the trial of Jesus of Nazareth–have to tell us about capital punishment in the United States?

Jesus Christ was a prisoner on death row. If that statement surprises you, consider this fact: of all the roles that Jesus played–preacher, teacher, healer, mentor, friend–none features as prominently in the gospels as this one, a criminal indicted and convicted of a capital offense.

Now consider another fact: the arrest, trial, and execution of Jesus bear remarkable similarities to the American criminal justice system, especially in capital cases. From the use of paid informants to the conflicting testimony of witnesses to the denial of clemency, the elements in the story of Jesus’ trial mirror the most common components in capital cases today.

Finally, consider a question: How might we see capital punishment in this country differently if we realized that the system used to condemn the Son of God to death so closely resembles the system we use in capital cases today? Should the experience of Jesus’ trial, conviction, and execution give us pause as we take similar steps to place individuals on death row today? These are the questions posed by this surprising, challenging, and enlightening book

www.goodreads.com
jesus on death

QUESTION: Death of Jesus Christ – Is it meaningful to you?

ANSWER:

The Bible states; “The law requires that nearly everything be cleansed with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness” (Hebrews 9:22). The Old Testament sacrifices for sin began even before the law was given through Moses to the nation of Israel. That first sacrifice was the animal that was slain by God to “cover” the nakedness of Adam and Eve (Genesis 3:21) when they sinned by disobedience to God’s only requirement (Genesis 2:17). This covering was an act of God’s grace and was a foreshadowing of the last sacrifice for sin, the death of Jesus Christ.

The sacrifice of animals as a covering for sin continued throughout Israel’s history until the temple was destroyed in A.D. 70. However, the sacrifice of Jesus Christ on the cross was the last offering of the “Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!” (John 1:29). The death of Jesus was significant because His death did not just cover sin, it redeemed sin. Those who trust in the LORD Jesus Christ as their savior are redeemed or bought out of sin because Jesus paid the full price for sin and offered God’s grace to whoever believes.

The death of Jesus was significant because only that death was the complete and final, once for all sacrifice for the sins of the world. “And by that will, we have been made holy through the sacrifice of the body of Jesus Christ once for all” (Hebrews 10:10).

However, there is truth about the death of Jesus on the cross that is overlooked by many. Jesus’ physical death or physical separation from His body was significant but it was only after the price for our sin had been paid and Jesus cried “It is finished” that He died physically. His physical death was important because of the resurrection that followed, however, it was not Jesus’ physical death that paid the ransom for the sin of man. If that were all it took then any man’s death would have sufficed. The death of Jesus was a unique, one of a kind, once for all death that ransomed mankind from sin and satisfied the righteousness of God and made it possible for man to once again have a personal relationship with God.

The simple definition of death is separation. Jesus and the Father are One and that knowledge was with Jesus through out His life here on earth (John 17:11). However, during the three hours of darkness as Jesus hung on the cross, God judicially placed upon Christ the sin of the world and then turned His face from the Son (Mark 15:34). It was this separation that paid the price for our sin. We know that the Father accepted the Son’s sacrifice because Jesus said, “It is finished” and then He cried, “Father, into your hands I commit my spirit” (Luke 23:46). It was then that Jesus gave up His Spirit. As Jesus had taught, “The reason my Father loves me is that I lay down my life – only to take it up again. No one takes it from me, but I lay it down of my own accord. I have authority to lay it down and authority to take it up again. This command I received from my Father” (John 10:17-18).

Therefore Jesus’ statement, “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me” (John 14:6) became total reality with the death of Jesus, His resurrection, and His ascension back to the Father to prepare a place for all who trust in His sacrifice for sin.

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

– We have all

sinned

and deserve God’s judgment.

God

, the Father, sent His only Son to satisfy that judgment for those who believe in Him.

Jesus

, the creator and eternal Son of God, who lived a sinless life, loves us so much that He

died

for our sins, taking the punishment that we deserve, was

buried

, and

rose from the dead

according to the

Bible

. If you truly believe and trust this in your heart, receiving Jesus alone as your

Savior

, declaring, “

Jesus is Lord

,” you will be saved from

judgment

and spend eternity with God in heaven.

What is your response?

Yes, today I am deciding to follow JesusYes, I am already a follower of JesusI still have questions

www.allaboutjesuschrist.org

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jesus on death

Christian belief about Jesus’ death on the cross is rooted in history

Christianity is rooted in God’s work in history. There is a connection between what Christians believe and what God has done in the world He created.

The Christian J. Gresham Machen wrote:

The primitive Church was concerned not merely with what Jesus had said, but also, and primarily, with what Jesus had done. The world was to be redeemed through the proclamation of an event. And with the event went the meaning of the event; and the setting forth of the event with the meaning of the event was doctrine. These two elements are always combined in the Christian message. The narration of the facts is history; the narration of the facts with the meaning of the facts is doctrine. “Suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead and buried”–that is history. “He loved me and gave Himself for me”–that is doctrine. Such was the Christianity of the primitive Church (Christianity and Liberalism, 29).

George Eldon Ladd also pointed out the importance of history as it relates to the beliefs of Christianity:

The uniqueness and scandal of the Christian religion rests in the mediation of revelation through historical events. The Hebrew-Christian faith stands apart from the religions of its environment because it is an historical faith, whereas they were religions rooted in mythology or the cycle of nature. The God of Israel was the God of history, or the geschichtsgott, as German theologians so vividly put it. The Hebrew-Christian faith did not grow out of lofty philosophical speculation or profound mystical experiences. It arose out of the historical experiences of Israel, old and new, in which God made Himself known. This fact imparts to the Christian faith a specific content and objectivity which set it apart from others…. The Bible is not primarily a collection of the religious ideas of a series of great thinkers. It is not first of all a system of theological concepts, much less of philosophical speculations….The recital of God’s historical acts is the substance of Christian proclamation (“The Knowledge of God: The Saving Acts of God” in ed., Carl F. H. Henry, Basic Christian Doctrines , 7-13).

God makes Himself known not only in His Words but also in His works; God works in history.  History matters because events that happen in history are true for everyone:

They were true because they happened in history, and things that happen in history are not just true for direct participants, but are true for everyone (Michael Horton, “Heaven Came Down”; Modern Reformation, Nov./Dec. 1995, Vol. 4 No. 6).

The relationship between Christian belief and history is important because hundreds of millions of Muslims deny the historical event of Jesus’ death on the cross.

Hundreds of millions of Muslims deny Jesus’ death on the cross

The Quran claims about the crucifixion:

157And because of their saying (in boast), “We killed Messiah ‘Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), the Messenger of Allah,” — but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but the resemblance of ‘Iesa (Jesus) was put over another man (and they killed that man), and those who differ therein are full of doubts. They have no (certain) knowledge, they follow nothing but conjecture. For surely; they killed him not : 158But Allah raised him up (with his body and soul) unto Himself (and he is in the heavens). And Allah is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise. (An-Nisa 4:157-158, Muhsin Khan) 0

Ibn ‘Abbas (d.68/687) a paternal cousin of Muhammad and esteemed by many Muslims as the “father of Quran commentary” and “the Ocean ” commented on Quran 4:157-158:

(And because of their saying: We slew the Messiah Jesus son of Mary, Allah’s messenger) Allah destroyed their man Tatianos . (They slew him not nor crucified, but it appeared so unto them) Allah made Tatianos look like Jesus and so they killed him instead of him; (and lo! those who disagree concerning it) concerning his killing (are in doubt thereof) in doubt about his killing; (they have no knowledge thereof save pursuit of a conjecture) not even conjecture; (they slew him not for certain) i.e. certainly they did not kill him. (Tafsir Ibn ‘Abbas, translated by Mokrane Guezzou,

The commentator al-Baydawi (d.685/1282), a good example of classical Islamic interpretation, wrote of the crucifixion:

There is a story that a group of Jews insulted Jesus and his mother, whereupon he appealed to God against them.  When God transformed those into monkeys and swine, the Jews took counsel to kill Jesus.  Then God told Jesus that He would raise him up to heaven, and so Jesus said to his disciples: “Who among you will agree to take a form similar to mine and die and be crucified and then go to paradise?” A man among them offered himself, so God changed him into a form resembling Jesus’ and he was killed and crucified.

Others say that a man pretended in Jesus’ presence but then went off and denounced him, whereupon God changed the man into a form similar to that of Jesus, and that he was seized and crucified (translated in Francis E. Peters, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam: The Classical Texts and Their Interpretation, vol. 1, From Covenant to Community, chap.3, no.30 , 151).

Islam’s denial of Jesus’ death on the cross is a radical redefinition of history

Islam’s denial of Jesus’ death on the cross is a radical redefinition of history. 1

Observation, witness, testimony, and human analysis have little or no role in learning about what happened centuries ago at Golgotha. The only thing that ultimately matters is that Muhammad claimed an angel revealed to him something about the past contrary to what was observed and recorded. This is all in spite of the fact that Muhammad came hundreds of years after the event, lived hundreds of miles away, and did not provide any evidence. Denying history has tragic consequences as can be seen in our day with those who deny the Holocaust. 2

The Historical Facts of Jesus’ Death on the Cross

The Old Testament prophets testified to Jesus’ death and burial.

Isaiah wrote almost 700 years before Jesus:

Isaiah 53:7-9
He was oppressed and He was afflicted, Yet He did not open His mouth; Like a lamb that is led to slaughter, And like a sheep that is silent before its shearers, So He did not open His mouth.
By oppression and judgment He was taken away; And as for His generation, who considered That He was cut off out of the land of the living For the transgression of my people, to whom the stroke was due?
His grave was assigned with wicked men, Yet He was with a rich man in His death, Because He had done no violence, Nor was there any deceit in His mouth.

Jesus testified to His death on multiple occasions.

Matthew 16:21
From that time on Jesus began to explain to his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and suffer many things at the hands of the elders, chief priests and teachers of the law, and that he must be killed and on the third day be raised to life.

Matthew 20:17-19
Now as Jesus was going up to Jerusalem, he took the twelve disciples aside and said to them, “We are going up to Jerusalem, and the Son of Man will be betrayed to the chief priests and the teachers of the law. They will condemn him to death and will turn him over to the Gentiles to be mocked and flogged and crucified. On the third day he will be raised to life!”

Matthew 26:1-2
When Jesus had finished saying all these things, he said to his disciples,
“As you know, the Passover is two days away—and the Son of Man will be handed over to be crucified.”

Matthew 26:6-12
While Jesus was in Bethany in the home of a man known as Simon the Leper,
a woman came to him with an alabaster jar of very expensive perfume, which she poured on his head as he was reclining at the table.
When the disciples saw this, they were indignant. “Why this waste?” they asked.
“This perfume could have been sold at a high price and the money given to the poor.”
Aware of this, Jesus said to them, “Why are you bothering this woman? She has done a beautiful thing to me.
The poor you will always have with you, but you will not always have me.
When she poured this perfume on my body, she did it to prepare me for burial.

Eyewitnesses to the death of Jesus on the cross:

  • Mary Magdalene
  • Mary the mother of James and Joseph
  • Mary the mother of Jesus
  • The disciple whom Jesus loved (John 19:26)

People who participated in the burial of Jesus’ dead body:

  • Joseph of Arimathea
  • Nicodemus
  • Mary Magdalene
  • Mary the mother of James and Joseph

Non-Christian sources wrote of Jesus’ death:

  • Josephus (Jewish historian born around AD 37 and died AD 100) refers to Jesus’ death (Antiquities 18.3.3).
  • Tacitus (AD 55-120), a renowned historian of ancient Rome wrote around AD 115 that Christ was “executed” by Pilate (Annals 15.44). 4

The law/Torah requires that a matter be established by two or three witnesses (Deuteronomy 17:6-7). Therefore, the testimonies of Jesus, Old Testament prophets, Jesus’ followers, non-Christian historians, etc. is true, legal and believable compared to the testimony of Muhammad (or the Quran), which was written nearly 600 years after the event. To put it simply, the Law of Moses makes it unlawful to believe the Quran.

Even though it claims certainty, An-Nisa 4:157 is an historical claim that is far from historical certainty:

004.157
YUSUF ALI: That they said (in boast), “We killed Christ Jesus the son of Mary, the Messenger of Allah”;—but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but so it was made to appear to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts, with no (certain) knowledge, but only conjecture to follow, for of a surety they killed him not:-

From an historical point of view this claim is untrue. This claim was made hundreds of years after the event and has no historical support from the first century; none of Jesus’ followers wrote or testified that Jesus only appeared to die on the cross. The Quran does not explain who died on the cross, it does not explain whether the disciples of Jesus were deceived, and it does not explain why Allah has allowed the world to be deceived (or did Allah deceive the world?) about this for hundreds of years. It is Muslims who conjecture; Muslims who have no certain knowledge; Muslims who are full of doubts about what actually happened during the crucifixion. All Christians (Roman Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant) agree that Jesus died on the cross. To be sure, Christians don’t agree about everything. There’s a lot we disagree about. But one thing Christians all agree about is the death of Jesus on the cross. Even non-Christian historians are in overwhelming agreement about the historicity of Jesus’ death on the cross. 6

Serious problems arise when a person’s beliefs about the world don’t correspond to the real world. The story is told of a certain psychiatric patient who kept insisting that he was dead. Doctors tried and tried to persuade him that he was alive and not dead with little success. Finally, the decided to prove this by explaining to him scientifically that dead people don’t bleed, only living people. After observing  observing autopsies, hearing explanations of how the circulatory system works, and reading medical textbooks, the psychiatric patient finally confessed, “All right, I guess only living people bleed.”

As soon as the patient admitted this truth, one of the doctors whipped out a pin and plunged it into the psychiatric patient’s veins. The doctors started shouting, “You’re bleeding.  You’re bleeding!  What does that mean?”

The psychiatric patient looked at his bleeding arm and exclaimed, “DEAD PEOPLE REALLY DO BLEED!”

In the psychiatric patient’s mind: he was DEAD.  But what was in his mind didn’t at all correspond to reality. 7

Islam has a similar problem. Its claim that Jesus did not die on the cross does not correspond to reality. It doesn’t correspond to history.

An honest look at the facts leads to the conclusion that the Christian Scriptures are superior to the Quran because of the superior evidence available demonstrating the death of Jesus on the cross.

Click here, if you have questions, or if you would like to talk further.

I invite you to embrace Christianity as the truth and only way of salvation. Jesus said, “I told you that you would die in your sins; if you do not believe that I am the one I claim to be, you will indeed die in your sins” (John 8:24). Believe in Jesus, and be baptized for the forgiveness of your sins, and you can have certainty that you will inherit eternal life. This certainty is rooted in what God has done in the real world with respect to the death of Jesus on the cross, His burial, resurrection, and ascension into heaven.

Watch The Quran and Jesus’ Crucifixion

References

Anawati, G.C., “Isa.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, (Leiden, E.J. Brill 1986-2004); online at the Internet Archive.

Ayoub, M. M., “Toward an Islamic Christology, II: The Death of Jesus, Reality or Delusion?” The Muslim World, 70: 91–121.

Bauckham, Richard, Jesus and the Eyewitnesses: The Gospels As Eyewitness Testimony.

__________, The Gospels as Historical Biography.

__________, The Gospels as History from Below, Part 1; Part 2

__________, The Gospels as Micro-History and Perspectival History.

Brown, Raymond, “Imaginative Rewriting that Nullifies the Crucifixion.” In The Death of the Messiah (New York: Doubleday, 1994), 1092-1096.

Craig, William Lane, Jesus’ Resurrection: Fact or Figment?: A Debate Between William Lane Craig and Gerd Ludemann (IVP Academic, 2000).

______________, Is There Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus?: A Debate between William Lane Craig and Bart D. Ehrman. Video, debate transcript

Crossan, John Dominic, The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant (New York: HarperSanFrancisco, 1993).
________________, Who Killed Jesus?: exposing the roots of anti-semitism in the Gospel story of the death of Jesus (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1995).

Cumming, Joseph, “Did Jesus Die on the Cross? The History of Reflection on the End of His Earthly Life in Sunni Tafsir Literature.”

Dickson, John, “A Spectator’s Guide to Crucifixion.”

Din, Muhammad, “The Crucifixion in the Koran: The Moslem Point of View.” The Muslim World, 14:23-29.

Edwards, William D., MD; Wesley J. Gabel, M.Div.; Floyd E. Hosmer, MS, AMI; “On the Physical Death of Jesus Christ,” Journal of the American Medical Association 21 March 1986; Volume 255, 1463.

France, R.T., The Gospels as Historical Sources for Jesus, the Founder of Christianity.

Gairdner, William Henry Temple, The Eucharist as Historical Evidence (Cairo: The Nile Mission Press, 1910).

Habermas, Gary and Mike Licona, The Case for the Resurrection of Jesus (Kregel Publications, 2004).

Habermas,  Gary, The Historical Jesus: Ancient Evidence for the Life of Christ (Joplin, MI: College Press, 1996).

Hengel, Martin, The Gospels as History

Islamic View of Jesus’ Death, Wikipedia

Judge, Edwin, History and Testimony

__________, How Christianity Changed the Writing of History

Licona, Mike, The Death of Jesus & the Defeat of Islam

Lawson, Todd, The Crucifixion and the Qur’an: A Study in the History of Muslim Thought (Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2009).

Machen, J. Gresham, “History and Faith.“ The Princeton Theological Review, 13.3 (July 1915), 337-351.

Meier, John P., A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus (New York: Anchor Doubleday):

V. 1, The Roots of the Problem and the Person, 1991.
V. 2, Mentor, Message, and Miracles, 1994.
V. 3, Companions and Competitors, 2001.

al-Qayrawani, Faris, Was Christ Really Crucified? (Villach, Austria: Light of Life, 1994).

Robinson, Neal, Christ in Islam and Christianity (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991).

Robinson, Neal, “Crucifixion”, in: Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC.

Sanders, E.P. The Historical Figure of Jesus (London: Allen Lane Penguin Press, 1993).

Schirrmacher, Christine.  The Crucifixion of Jesus in View of Muslim Theology.

Siddiqui, Muzammil.  What happened on the day of crucifixion?; World Fatwa Management and Research Institute (INFAD); Islamic Science University of Malaysia.

Smith, Jay.  Did Jesus Die on the Cross?

Stewart, Robert B. (editor), The Resurrection of Jesus: John Dominic Crossan And N.T. Wright in Dialogue (Fortress Press, 2006).

Warfield, Benjamin, “The Resurrection of Christ: A Historical Fact.” Originally published in The Journal of Christian Philosophy, vol. III., 1884, pp. 305-318.

Wenham, John, Easter Enigma: Do the Resurrection Stories Contradict One Another? (Cambridge University Press, 1993).

Who was Jesus? Did He Rise from the Dead?: A Muslim-Christian Debate between John Warwick Montgomery and Shabir Ally held in London, England on October 17, 2003.

Zwemer, Samuel, The Glory of the Cross, (London: Marshall, Organ & Scott, 1928).

You may also be interested in: 

Trinity, Tawheed, and Monotheism

Footnotes

bible-quran.com

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